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"All we ask is Equal Rights"

African-American Congressmen, Judges & Lawmakers in South Carolina

Compiled by W. Lewis Burke

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Bibliography of Major Scholarship on African American Leaders/Politicos in South Carolina

by Michael Mounter, Ph.D.

Abbott, Martin. "County Officers in South Carolina in 1868." South Carolina Historical Magazine 60 (January 1959): 30-40.

Abbott, Martin. "Freedom's Cry: Negroes and Their Meetings in South Carolina, 1865-1869." The Phylon Quarterly 20 (3rd Quarter 1959): 263-272.

Abbott, Martin. Freedmen's Bureau in South Carolina, 1865-1872. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1967.

Bailey, N. Louise, Mary L. Morgan, and Carolyn R. Taylor, eds. Biographical Directory of the South Carolina Senate, 1776-1985. 3 vols. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1986.

Baker, R. Scott. Paradoxes of Desegregation: African American Struggles for Educational Equity in Charleston, South Carolina, 1926-1972. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 2006.

Billingsley, Andrew. Yearning to Breathe Free: Robert Smalls of South Carolina and His Families. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 2007.

Birnie, C. W. "The Education of the Negro in Charleston, South Carolina, before the Civil War." Journal of Negro History 12 (January 1927): 13-21.

Bleser, Carol K. Rothrock. The Promised Land: The History of the South Carolina Land Commission, 1869-1890. Columbia: University of South Carolina, 1969.

Blassingame, John W. "Before the Ghetto: The Making of the Black Community in Savannah, Georgia, 1865-1880." Journal of Social History 6 (Summer 1973): 463-488.

Brock, Euline W. "Thomas W. Cardozo: Fallible Black Reconstruction Leader." Journal of Southern History 47 (May 1981): 183-206.

Broussard, Albert S. African-American Odyssey: the Stewarts, 1853-1963. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 1998.

Burke, W. Lewis, Jr.. "Post-Reconstruction Justice: The Prosecution and Trial of Francis Lewis Cardozo." South Carolina Law Review 53 (Winter 2002): 361-413.

Burke, W. Lewis. "The Radical Law School: The University of South Carolina School of Law and Its African American Graduates, 1873-1877." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Burke, W. Lewis, Jr. "Reconstruction, Corruption, and the Redeemers' Prosecution of Francis Lewis Cardozo." American Nineteenth Century History 2 (Autumn 2001): 67-106.

Burke, W. Lewis, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel, eds. Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Burke, W. Lewis, Jr., and William C. Hine. "The South Carolina State College Law School: Its Roots, Creation, and Legacy." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Burton, Orville Vernon. "Dining with Harvey Gantt: Myth and Realities of 'Integration with Dignity." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Carter, Dan. "Unfinished Transformation: Matthew J. Perry's South Carolina." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Christopher, Maurine. Black Americans in Congress. Rev. ed. New York: Crowell, 1976.

Cooper, William J. The Conservative Regime: South Carolina, 1877-1890. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1968.

Coulter, E. Merton. "Aaron Alpeoria Bradley [1815-1882], Georgia Negro Politician During Reconstruction Times, Part 1." Georgia Historical Quarterly 50 (March 1967): 15-41

Coulter, E. Merton. "Aaron Alpeoria Bradley [1815-1882], Georgia Negro Politician During Reconstruction Times, Part 2." Georgia Historical Quarterly 50 (June 1967): 154-174.

Coulter, E. Merton. "Aaron Alpeoria Bradley [1815-1882], Georgia Negro Politician During Reconstruction Times, Part 3." Georgia Historical Quarterly 50 (September 1967): 264-306.

Coulter, E. Merton. Negro Legislators in Georgia During the Reconstruction Period. Athens: Georgia Historical Quarterly, 1968.

Currie, Cameron McGowan. "Before Rosa Parks: The Case of Sarah Mae Flemming." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Drago, Edmund L.. Initiative, Paternalism and Race Relations: Charleston's Avery Normal Institute. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1990.

Drago, Edmund L. Black Politicians and Reconstruction in Georgia: a Splendid Failure. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1992, reprint; Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.

Drago, Edmund L. Hurrah for Hampton!: Black Red Shirts in South Carolina during Reconstruction. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1998.

DuBois, W. E. B. Black Reconstruction: An Essay toward a History of the Part Which Black Folk Played in the Attempt to Reconstruct Democracy in America, 1860-1880. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1935.

Edgar, Walter B. South Carolina: A History. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1998.

Edgar, Walter B., ed. The South Carolina Encyclopedia. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2006.

Farley, John E. "Francis L. Cardozo." B.A. Thesis, Princeton University, 1949.

Fitchett, E. Horace. "The Tradition of the Free Negro in Charleston, South Carolina." Journal of Negro History 25 (April 1940): 139-152.

Fitchett, E. Horace. "The Origins and Growth of the Free Negro Population of Charleston, South Carolina." Journal of Negro History 26 (October 1941): 421-437.

Foner, Eric. "South Carolina's Black Elected Officials during Reconstruction." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Foner, Eric. Freedom's Lawmakers: A Directory of Black Officeholders during Reconstruction. Rev. ed. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1996.

Foner, Eric. Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863-1877. New York: Harper & Row, 1988.

Friedman, Leon and Richard Mark Gergel. "Matthew J. Perry's Contribution to the Development of Constitutional Law." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Gaboury, William J. "George Washington Murray and the Fight for Political Democracy in South Carolina." Journal of Negro History 62 (July 1977): 258-269.

Gatewood, Willard B. "Alonzo Clifton McClennan: Black Midshipman from South Carolina, 1873-1874." South Carolina Historical Magazine 89 (January 1988): 24-39.

Gergel, Richard and Belinda Gergel. "'To Vindicate the Cause of the Downtrodden': Associate Justice Jonathan Jasper Wright and Reconstruction in South Carolina." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Hawkshawe, Dorothy Drinkard. "David Augustus Straker: Black Lawyer and Reconstruction Politician, 1842-1908." Ph.D. Dissertation, Catholic University of America, 1974.

Hine, William C. "The 1867 Charleston Streetcar Sit-Ins: A Case of Successful Black Protest." South Carolina Historical Magazine 77 (April 1976): 110-114.

Hine, William C. "Black Politicians in Reconstruction Charleston, South Carolina: A Collective Study." Journal of Southern History 49 (November 1983): 555-584.

Hine, William C. "Thomas E. Miller and the Early Years of South Carolina State University." Carologue 12 (Winter 1996): 8-12.

Hollis, John Porter. The Early Period of Reconstruction in South Carolina. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1905.

Holt, Thomas. Black over White: Negro Political Leadership in South Carolina during Reconstruction. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1977.

Jenkins, Wilbert L. Seizing the New Day: African Americans in Post-Civil War Charleston. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.

Kennedy, Randall L. "Introduction: Matthew J. Perry, a Lawyer with a Cause." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Koger, Larry. Black Slaveowners: Free Black Slaveowners in South Carolina, 1790-1860. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995, reprint; Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1985.

Kluger, Richard. Simple Justice: the History of Brown v. Board of Education and Black America's Struggle for Equality. New York: Knopf, 1976.

Lamson, Petty. The Glorious Failure: Black Congressman Robert Brown Elliott and the Reconstruction in South Carolina. New York: Norton, 1973.

McCarthy, John L. "Reconstruction Legislation and Voting Alignments in the House of Representatives, 1863-1869." Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University, 1970.

McFeely, William S. Yankee Stepfather: General O. O. Howard and the Freedmen. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1968.

Mann, Kenneth E. "Richard Harvey Cain, Congressman, Minister and Champion for Civil Rights." Negro History Bulletin 35 (March 1972): 64-66.

Martin, Frank, II. Inner Circle: Images of the Black & Creole Bourgeoisie, 1854-1954. I. P. Stanback Museum and Planetarium, South Carolina State University, 2001.

Marszalek, John F. Court-martial: a Black Man in America. New York: Scribner, 1972.

Marszalek, John F. A Black Congressman in the Age of Jim Crow: South Carolina's George Washington Murray. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 2006.

Middleton, Stephen, ed. Black Congressmen during Reconstruction: A Documentary Sourcebook. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2002.

Miller, Edward A., Jr. Gullah Statesman: Robert Smalls from Slavery to Congress, 1839-1915. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1995.

Moore, Robert J. "Matthew J. Perry's Preparation." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Moore, Robert J. "The Civil Rights Advocate." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Moore, Winifred B. and Orville Vernon Burton, eds. Toward the Meeting of the Waters: Currents in the Civil Rights Movement of South Carolina during the Twentieth Century. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2008.

Motley, Constance Baker. "Memory, History, and Community: The Assimilation of Houstonian Principles in the Career of Matthew J. Perry." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Mounter, Michael Robert. "Richard Theodore Greener and the African American Individual in a Black and White world." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Mounter, Michael Robert. "Richard Theodore Greener: the Idealist, Statesman, Scholar and South Carolinian." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of South Carolina, 2002.

Newby, I. A. Black Carolinians: A History of Blacks in South Carolina from 1895 to 1968. Columbia: University of Press, 1973.

Oldfield, John. "A High and Honorable Calling: Black Lawyers in South Carolina, 1868-1915." Journal of American Studies 23 (1989): 395-406.

Oldfield, John. "The African American Bar in South Carolina, 1877-1915." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Patton, James Welch. "The Republican Party in South carolina, 1876-95." In Essays in Southern History Presented to Joseph Gregoire de Roulhac Hamilton, Ph.D., LL.D.: by his Former Students at the University of North Carolina, edited by Fletcher Melvin Green. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1949.

Phillips, Glenn O. "The Response of a West Indian Activist: D. A. Straker, 1842-1908." Journal of Negro History 66 (Summer 1981): 128-139.

Powers, Bernard E. Black Charlestonians: A Social History, 1822-1885. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1994.

Powers, Bernard E. "'I Go to Set the Captives Free': The Activism of Richard Harvey Cain, Nationalist Churchman and Reconstruction-Era Leader." In The Southern Elite and Social Change, edited by Randy Finley and Thomas DeBlack. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2002.

Reel, Jerome V., Jr. "Clemson and Harvey Gantt." In Integration with Dignity: A Celebration of Harvey Gantt's Admission to Clemson, edited by Skip Eisiminger. Clemson: Clemson University Digital Press, 2003.

Reidy, Joseph P. "Aaron P. Bradley: Voice of Black Labor in the Georgia Lowcountry." In Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era, edited by Howard N. Rabinowitz. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

Reynolds, John S. Reconstruction in South Carolina, 1865-1877. Columbia: The State Printing Company, 1905.

Richardson, Joe. "Francis L. Cardozo: Black Educator during Reconstruction." Journal of Negro Education 73 (Winter 1979): 73-83.

Ripley, C. Peter ed., and Jeffrey S. Rossback, associate editor, et al. The Black Abolitionist Papers. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985-1992. 5 volumes.

Rogers, George C. The History of Georgetown County, South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970.

Saville, Julie. The Work of Reconstruction: from Slave to Wage Laborer in South Carolina, 1860-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

Shirley, William Harrison. "A Black Republican during the Democratic Resurgence in South Carolina: Robert Smalls, 1876-1882." M.A. Thesis, University of South Carolina, 1970.

Simkins, Francis B. Simkins and Robert H. Woody. South Carolina During Reconstruction. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1932.

Smith, J. Clay. Emancipation: The Making of the Black Lawyer, 1844-1944. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993.

Smith, J. Clay. "The Reconstruction of Justice Jonathan Jasper Wright." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Smith, John David. Black Judas: William Hannibal Thomas and The American Negro. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.

Suggs, H. Lewis. "Harvey Gantt and the Desegregation of Clemson University, 1960-1963." In Integration with Dignity: A Celebration of Harvey Gantt's Admission to Clemson, edited by Skip Eisiminger. Clemson: Clemson University Digital Press, 2003.

Swan, Robert J. "Thomas McCants Stewart and the Failure of the Mission of the Talented Tenth in Black America, 1880-1923." Ph.D. Dissertation, New York University, 1990.

Sweat, Edward F. "Francis L. Cardozo- Profile of Integrity in Reconstruction Politics." Journal of Negro History 46 (October 1961): 217-232.

Sweat, Edward F. "The Union Leagues and the South Carolina Election of 1870. Journal of Negro History 61 (April 1976): 200-214.

Taylor, Alrutheus Ambush. The Negro in South Carolina during the Reconstruction. Washington, DC: The Association for the Study of Negro Life and History, 1924.

Thompson, Michael E. "Blacks, Carpetbaggers, and Scalawags: A Study of the Membership of the South Carolina Legislature, 1868-1870." Ph.D. Dissertation, Washington State University, 1975.

Tindall, George Brown. "The Campaign for the Disfranchisement of Negroes in South Carolina." Journal of Southern History 15 (May 1949): 212-234.

Tindall, George Brown. "The Question of Race in the South Carolina Constitutional Convention of 1895." Journal of Negro History 37 (July 1952): 277-303.

Tindall, George Brown. South Carolina Negroes, 1877-1900. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press, 2003; reprint of 1952 edition with new introduction by author.

Ullman, Victor. Martin R. Delany: The Beginnings of Black Nationalism. Boston: Beacon Press, 1971.

Underwood, James Lowell. "African American Founding Fathers: The Making of the South Carolina Constitution of 1868." In At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina, edited by James Lowell Underwood and W. Lewis Burke, Jr. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

Underwood, James Lowell and W. Lewis Burke, Jr., eds. At Freedom's Door: African American Founding Fathers and Lawyers in Reconstruction South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2000.

United States. House of Representatives. Committee on House Administration. Black Americans in Congress, 1870-2007. Government Printing Office, 2008.

Uya, Okon Edet. From Slavery to Public Service: Robert Smalls, 1839-1915. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Vroegop, Virginia L. "A Postscript: Flemming's Role in Matthew J. Perry's Career." In Matthew J. Perry: the Man, His Times, and His Legacy, edited by W. Lewis Burke, Jr., and Belinda F. Gergel. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2004.

Wikramanayake, Marina. World in Shadow: the Free Black in Antebellum South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1973.

Williams, Lou Faulkner. The Great South Carolina Ku Klux Klan Trials, 1871-1872. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996.

Williamson, Joel. After Slavery: the Negro in South Carolina during Reconstruction, 1861-1877. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1965.

Woody, Robert H. "Jonathan Jasper Wright, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina, 1870-1877." Journal of Negro History 18 (April 1933): 114-131.

Yarbrough, Tinsley E. Passion for Justice: J. Waites Waring and Civil Rights. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.

Zuczek, Richard. State of Rebellion: Reconstruction in South Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1996.